Carbon , Radiometric Dating and Index Fossils Carbon dating is used to determine the age of biological artifacts up to 50, years old. This technique is widely used on recent artifacts, but educators and students alike should note that this technique will not work on older fossils like those of the dinosaurs alleged to be millions of years old. This technique is not restricted to bones; it can also be used on cloth, wood and plant fibers. Carbon dating has been used successfully on the Dead Sea Scrolls, Minoan ruins and tombs of the pharaohs among other things. Carbon is a radioactive isotope of carbon. The half-life of carbon is approximately 5, years. The short half-life of carbon means it cannot be used to date fossils that are allegedly extremely old, e.

Indicators of Economic Progress: The Power of Measurement and Human Welfare

Shop Now Scientists use a technique called radiometric dating to estimate the ages of rocks, fossils, and the earth. Many people have been led to believe that radiometric dating methods have proved the earth to be billions of years old. With our focus on one particular form of radiometric dating—carbon dating—we will see that carbon dating strongly supports a young earth. Note that, contrary to a popular misconception, carbon dating is not used to date rocks at millions of years old. Basics Before we get into the details of how radiometric dating methods are used, we need to review some preliminary concepts from chemistry.

I don’t object to having some hard evidence that there are real agreements between different methods on the geologic column, if someone can provide it.

Introduction Hominid or hominin? Some scientists use a broader definition of Hominidae which includes the great apes, and instead call the group I am discussing “hominins”. The word “hominid” in this website refers to members of the family of humans, Hominidae, which consists of all species on our side of the last common ancestor of humans and living apes.

Hominids are included in the superfamily of all apes, the Hominoidea, the members of which are called hominoids. Although the hominid fossil record is far from complete, and the evidence is often fragmentary, there is enough to give a good outline of the evolutionary history of humans. The time of the split between humans and living apes used to be thought to have occurred 15 to 20 million years ago, or even up to 30 or 40 million years ago.

Some apes occurring within that time period, such as Ramapithecus, used to be considered as hominids, and possible ancestors of humans. Later fossil finds indicated that Ramapithecus was more closely related to the orang-utan, and new biochemical evidence indicated that the last common ancestor of hominids and apes occurred between 5 and 10 million years ago, and probably in the lower end of that range Lewin Ramapithecus therefore is no longer considered a hominid.

The field of science which studies the human fossil record is known as paleoanthropology. It is the intersection of the disciplines of paleontology the study of ancient lifeforms and anthropology the study of humans. Hominid Species The species here are listed roughly in order of appearance in the fossil record note that this ordering is not meant to represent an evolutionary sequence , except that the robust australopithecines are kept together.

Each name consists of a genus name e. Australopithecus, Homo which is always capitalized, and a specific name e.

Radiocarbon dating

Rating Newest Oldest Best Answer: Carbon dating has a useful limit of about 50, years, because the radioisotope C decays relatively quickly. Carbon dating is perfectly accurate within certain limitations, but it is almost never used for dating geological materials such as fossils. The absolute age of fossils and the age of the earth are determined using long-lived radioisotopes, such as U, K, Ar, Rb, and Pb.

And yet, with a large amount of argon in the air and also filtering up from rocks below, and with excess argon in lava, with argon and potassium water soluble, and argon mobile in rock, we are still expecting this wisp of argon to tell us how old the rock is!

A house has been destroyed and two others badly damaged by a large grass fire near Rolleston, southwest of Christchurch. Firefighters were called to the Knights Rd fire just after 3pm on Saturday. Fire and Emergency New Zealand Canterbury area commander Dave Berry said the blaze badly damaged two houses and two sheds, with about “10 per cent damage” to a third property. Do you know more? Strong winds of about 40kmh and dry weather over the past few weeks had complicated firefighting efforts, he said.

That fire, about m in size, was not threatening properties. Initial reports to emergency services about a missing person were inaccurate. Berry said he was “definitely” concerned about fire risk in the coming days as hot conditions persist. Berry said there would be crews on site tomorrow, and about “30 to 40 guys overnight watching hot spots as well”.

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What he does is dig things out of his backyard and then send them to the Smithsonian Institute. Scot labels his exhibits with scientific names, insisting that they are actual archaeological finds. This man really exists and does this in his spare time! Bear this letter in mind next time you think you are challenged in your job to respond to a difficult situation in writing.

Williams, Thank you for your latest submission to the Institute, labelled ‘ D, layer seven, next to the clothesline post

In he poured a concoction of organic chemicals into a pool of hot water.

Taxonomy[ edit ] Comparative image of the red wolf C. In , Atkins and Dillon conducted a study on the brains of canids and confirmed the basal characteristics of the red wolf. In addition, Wilson et al. However, these conclusions were disputed, [35] [37] and MSW3 [5] listed them both in as subspecies of the gray wolf. This study analyzed 48, single nucleotide polymorphisms SNPs and found no evidence for a unique eastern wolf or red wolf species.

While it is true that many SNPs were examined, whether loci important to red wolf genetic variation were actually identified and analyzed for example, nuclear DNA was not compared in the SNP analysis remains unclear. Second, the study sampled modern red wolf specimens, and not historic red wolf specimens from prior to when extensive hybridization with coyotes is known to have taken place , which obfuscates the reliability of the study’s findings.

This is important because using historic red wolf genetic material would have created a baseline genetic profile for the species against which to test the modern captive-bred specimens. It is common knowledge that the captive-bred red wolves are likely slightly hybridized, but this is a separate issue from interpreting their species origin as due to hybridization. Third, the authors lumped eastern wolf specimens which critics from Trent University warn are of unverified origin with other Great Lakes wolf specimens, and did not test them separately, which again obfuscated any genetic differences that may have been present.

The controversy over the eastern wolf’s origins is not considered by the scientific community to be laid to rest, although it may be synonymous with the red wolf. The Florida black wolf Canis rufus floridanus Maine to Florida [45] has been extinct since and Gregory’s wolf Canis rufus gregoryi south-central United States [45] was declared functionally extinct in the wild by The Texas red wolf Canis rufus rufus , the third subspecies, was also functionally extinct in the wild by , although that status was changed to critically endangered when captive-bred red wolves from Texas were reintroduced in eastern North Carolina in The purpose of this project was to determine whether the female western coyotes are capable of bearing hybrid western gray wolf-coyote pups, as well as to test the hybrid theory surrounding the origin of the eastern and red wolves by comparing them to both.


Consider also the most popular explanation offered for the photo right , that a concretion formed around an s-era hammer as minerals precipitated out of the surrounding limestone. From Adam until Real Science Radio , in only generations! Another paper, in the American Journal of Physical Anthropology Eugenie Scott ‘s own field on High mitochondrial mutation rates , shows that one mitochondrial DNA mutation occurs every other generation, which, as creationists point out , indicates that mtEve would have lived about generations ago.

That’s not so old! As our List of Not So Old Things this web page reveals, by a kneejerk reaction evolutionary scientists assign ages of tens or hundreds of thousands of years or at least just long enough to contradict Moses’ chronology in Genesis.

At an average of 1.

Researchers hope that by guiding stem cells in the laboratory into specific cell types, they can be used to treat diabetes, Parkinson’s disease, heart disease, or other disorders. The primary clinical source is the aborted fetus and unused embryos currently housed in frozen storage at IVF facilities. A developed stem cell line comes from a single embryo, becoming a colony of cells that reproduces indefinitely.

The issue of who or what As the nation sits embroiled over the battle of where to draw the line on ESCR, the real issue that truly divides us is whether embryonic stems represent a who or a what. In other words, are we talking about people or property? Wade we have not been willing or able as a nation to address the issue.

As a result, those who oppose ESCR and those who support it will never reach an acceptable point of compromise.

Hominid Species

The Radiometric Dating Game Radiometric dating methods estimate the age of rocks using calculations based on the decay rates of radioactive elements such as uranium, strontium, and potassium. On the surface, radiometric dating methods appear to give powerful support to the statement that life has existed on the earth for hundreds of millions, even billions, of years. We are told that these methods are accurate to a few percent, and that there are many different methods.

There are only a few different dating methods.

Public Opinion Introduction The television, newspapers, and textbooks commonly proclaim, as though it were proven fact, that the earth is 4 to 5 billion years old. What is not commonly taught is how the scientists determined that age. What assumptions did they make? What evidence did they use? What evidence did they discard? We will examine these questions in this article.

We will see that the scientists began with the assumptions that a. The scientists did not come to these conclusions based upon on an examination of the evidence. They simply made these assumptions from the beginning. We will also show that they use some of the most unreliable measurements available as evidence that the earth is very old, while at the same time they discard the overwhelming majority of the evidence which shows that the earth is very young.


Many people are under the false impression that carbon dating proves that dinosaurs and other extinct animals lived millions of years ago. What many do not realize is that carbon dating is not used to date dinosaurs. Carbon dating is only accurate back a few thousand years.

Extrusive bodies are lava that is deposited on the surface.

Yet everybody realized that the seals apparently had enemies of their own, such as the fearsome Ziphius. Here a Ziphius, with a face looking like a cross between an owl’s and a worried human’s, endures a bite from a porcine sea monster while munching on a hapless seal. The Ziphius might have been based on a killer whale or great white shark. Medieval manuscript Image appears at: Unlike the “rapier-billed” animals known as swordfish and sawfish today, the animals bearing these names during the Renaissance might have been inspired by the orca, or killer whale.

Growing tired, after racing three or four miles or more, he folds up his wings and the waves carry him back to his former abode where he was at first. The sea is the world, the ships are the prophets and apostles who cross through this world. The swordfish who does not keep pace with the crossing ships represents those who are abstinent for a time but who do not persevere with good pace.

The Geologic Column

The new species, named Kumimanu biceae, lived around 60 million years ago, making it one of the oldest known types of penguin. This specimen is not the first giant penguin to be unearthed. Remains of other large penguins, including one as tall as 2 metres, have been found in Antarctica, Australia and New Zealand.

Of these eight potential problems, Amelin et al.

As with many myths that are mistaken for actual history, it requires that a large body of contradictory evidence and sad experience be ignored or wished away. Without intending to be entirely whimsical, I offer the following chart as an idiosyncratic timeline of some of the events that heralded the end of one era and the beginning of the next. As an American my bias is plainly toward events in the western world.

Without doubt, over time the complicated becomes even more complicated, the grandiose more grandiose, wealth compounds, efficiencies in both killing and healing increase, and the powers of the rulers of both the visible and behind-the-scenes varieties become ever more god-like. But should we describe this as Progress? I aimed toward the middle of that latter range for an estimate of when our ancestors may have finally become established, although it might have been wiser to leave the origin in the mythical realm of ur-time rather than including it in the timeline at all.

Research illuminates inaccuracies in radiocarbon dating

January Fossils provide a record of the history of life. Smith is known as the Father of English Geology. Our understanding of the shape and pattern of the history of life depends on the accuracy of fossils and dating methods. Some critics, particularly religious fundamentalists, argue that neither fossils nor dating can be trusted, and that their interpretations are better.

Other critics, perhaps more familiar with the data, question certain aspects of the quality of the fossil record and of its dating.

This is a problem for the evolutionists who say that the dinosaurs became extinct tens of millions of years before man came on the scene.

Updated 8 January c Introduction In a related article on geologic ages Ages , we presented a chart with the various geologic eras and their ages. In a separate article Radiometric dating , we sketched in some technical detail how these dates are calculated using radiometric dating techniques. As we pointed out in these two articles, radiometric dates are based on known rates of radioactivity, a phenomenon that is rooted in fundamental laws of physics and follows simple mathematical formulas.

Dating schemes based on rates of radioactivity have been refined and scrutinized for several decades. The latest high-tech equipment permits reliable results to be obtained even with microscopic samples. Radiometric dating is self-checking, because the data after certain preliminary calculations are made are fitted to a straight line an “isochron” by means of standard linear regression methods of statistics.